Fatigue With Low Carb Diet – Home > Nutritional Resources > Healthy Weight > Diet Overview > Diet Overview: Ketogenic Diet for Weight Loss
The ketogenic or “keto” diet is a low-carbohydrate, high-fat eating plan that has been used for centuries to treat specific medical conditions. The 19th
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Century, the ketogenic diet is often used to control diabetes. In 1920 it was introduced as an effective treatment for epilepsy in children in whom medication is ineffective. The ketogenic diet has also been tested and used in closely monitored settings for cancer, diabetes, polycystic ovary syndrome, and Alzheimer’s disease.
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However, the diet gained considerable attention as a potential weight loss strategy due to the low-carb diet craze, which began in the 1970s with the Atkins diet (a low-carbohydrate, high-protein diet that was a commercial success. The low-carb diet in the measure the new). Today, other low-carb diets include the Paleo, South Beach, and Dukan diets, all of which are high in protein but moderate in fat. In contrast, the ketogenic diet is typical for its unusually high fat content, typically 70% to 80%, even with only moderate protein intake.
The premise of the ketogenic diet for weight loss is that if you deprive the body of glucose – the main source of energy for all cells in the body, which is obtained by eating carbohydrates – an alternative fuel called ketones is produced from stored fat (thus, the term “keto”-genic). The brain requires the most glucose in a steady supply, about 120 grams per day, because it cannot store glucose. During fasting, or when very few carbohydrates are eaten, the body first pulls stored glucose from the liver and temporarily breaks down the muscles to release the glucose. If this lasts 3-4 days and the glucose is fully stored, the blood level of a hormone called insulin decreases, and the body begins to use fat as its main fuel. The liver produces ketone bodies from fat, which can be used in the absence of glucose. 
When ketone bodies accumulate in the blood, this is called ketosis. Healthy people naturally experience mild ketosis during fasting (eg, overnight sleep) and very strenuous exercise. Supporters of the ketogenic diet claim that if the diet is followed carefully, the level of ketones in the blood should not reach dangerous levels (known as “ketoacidosis”) because the brain will use ketones for fuel, and healthy people will usually produce enough insulin. to prevent it. Excessive ketones from forming.  How soon ketosis occurs and the amount of ketone bodies accumulated in the blood can vary from person to person and depends on factors such as body fat percentage and resting metabolic rate. 
Excessive ketone bodies can produce dangerous levels of acid in the blood, called ketoacidosis. During ketoacidosis, the kidneys begin to excrete ketone bodies along with body water in the urine, causing some fluid-related weight loss. Ketoacidosis most often occurs in people with type 1 diabetes because they do not produce insulin, a hormone that prevents the production of ketones. But in some rare cases, ketoacidosis has been reported to occur in non-diabetic people after a prolonged carbohydrate diet. [4, 5]
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There is no single “standard” ketogenic diet with specific macronutrient ratios (carbohydrates, proteins, fats). A ketogenic diet typically reduces total carbohydrate intake to less than 50 grams per day—less than the amount found in a medium plain bagel—and can be as low as 20 grams per day. In general, popular ketogenic sources recommend an average of 70-80% fat of total daily calories, 5-10% carbohydrates and 10-20% protein. For a 2000-calorie diet, this translates to about 165 grams of fat, 40 grams of carbohydrates and 75 grams of protein. The amount of protein on a ketogenic diet is considered moderate compared to other low-carb protein diets, as eating too much protein can prevent ketosis. Amino acids in protein can be converted into glucose, so the ketogenic diet determines enough protein to preserve lean body mass including muscle, but it will still cause ketosis.
Many versions of the ketogenic diet exist, but all of them prohibit foods rich in carbohydrates. Some of these foods may be obvious: starches from both refined and whole grains like bread, cereals, pasta, rice and cookies; potatoes, corn and other starchy vegetables; and fruit juice. Some that may not be obvious are nuts, legumes and most fruits. Most ketogenic plans allow foods that contain saturated fats, such as fatty cuts of meat, processed meats, dirt, and butter, as well as sources of unsaturated fats, such as nuts, seeds, avocados, vegetable oils, and oily fish. Depending on your source of information, the list of ketogenic foods can be varied and even conflicting.
“Net carbs” and “impact carbs” are common phrases in the ketogenic diet as well as the diabetic diet. They are interchangeable unregulated terms invented by food manufacturers as a marketing strategy, appearing on some food labels claiming that the product contains less “useful” carbohydrates than listed.  Net carbohydrates or impact carbohydrates are the amount of carbohydrates that are directly absorbed by the body and contribute calories. It is calculated by subtracting the amount of indigestible carbohydrates from the total amount of carbohydrates. Non-digestible (unabsorbed) carbohydrates include insoluble fiber from grains, fruits and vegetables; And sugar alcohols, such as mannitol, sorbitol and xylitol are often used in sugar-free diabetic food products. However, this calculation is not an exact or reliable science because the effect of sugar alcohols on absorption and blood sugar can vary. Some sugar alcohols can still contribute calories and increase blood sugar. The total calorie level also does not change despite the amount of net carbohydrates, which is an important factor for weight loss. There is debate even in the ketogenic diet community about the value of using net carbs.
The program recommends following a ketogenic diet until the desired amount of weight is lost. When this is achieved, to prevent weight regain you can follow a diet for several days a week or several weeks every month, alternating with other days so that a high carbohydrate intake.
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The ketogenic diet has been shown to produce beneficial metabolic changes in the short term. Along with weight loss, health parameters associated with carrying excess weight have increased, such as insulin resistance, high blood pressure and high cholesterol and triglycerides. [2, 7] There is also a growing interest in the use of a low-carbohydrate diet, including the ketogenic diet, for diabetes type 2. In research: [2, 8, 9]
The following findings are limited to research specific to the ketogenic diet: Listed studies contain about 70-80% fat, 10-20% protein and 5-10% carbohydrates. So-called “low-carb” diets may not include this particular ratio, allowing for larger amounts of protein or carbohydrates. Therefore, only diets that define the term “ketogenic” or “keto,” or follow the macronutrient ratios listed above are included in the list below. In addition, although there is extensive research on the use of the ketogenic diet for other medical conditions, only studies examining ketogenic diets specifically for obesity or overweight are included in this list. (
Yet a high-fat diet can be challenging to maintain. Possible symptoms of extreme carbohydrate restriction that can last for days to weeks include hunger, fatigue, low mood, irritability, constipation, headaches and brain “fog.” Although the feeling of discomfort may decrease, staying satisfied with a limited variety of foods and being restricted from comfort foods like crunchy apples or creamy sweet potatoes can be a new challenge.
Some negative side effects of a long-term ketogenic diet have been suggested, including increased risk of kidney stones and osteoporosis, and increased levels of uric acid in the blood (a risk factor for gout). The possibility of nutritional deficiencies may arise if the various foods recommended in the ketogenic diet are not included. It is important not only to focus on eating foods that contain fat, but to include a variety of meat, fish, vegetables, fruits, nuts and seeds that are allowed every day to ensure an adequate intake of fiber, B vitamins and minerals. (iron, magnesium, zinc) – nutrients commonly found in foods such as whole grains that are restricted from food. Since not all food groups are included, assistance from a registered dietitian may be beneficial in creating a ketogenic diet that minimizes nutritional deficiencies.
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The available research on the ketogenic diet for weight loss is still limited. Most of the studies to date have had small numbers of participants, have been short-term (12 weeks or less), and have not included a control group. A ketogenic diet has been shown to provide short-term benefits in some people including weight loss and improvements in total cholesterol, blood sugar and blood pressure. However, the effects after one year when compared to the effects of conventional weight loss diets were not significantly different. 
Eliminating certain food groups and the potential for unpleasant symptoms can lead to compliance. An emphasis on foods high in saturated fat also meets the recommendations of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the American Heart Association and may have adverse effects on blood LDL cholesterol. However, it is possible to modify the diet to emphasize foods low in
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